n. essentially is is the legal concept of protecting communications between a client and his or her attorney by keeping it confidential. Used as a confidence building measure, its sole reason is to promote open and honest conversations between the two. Not all jurisdictions provide these priviledges. for example, within USA itself, the Washington state law protects only client communication, whereas in California both side’s communications are safeguarded. Also when an attorney is not acting primarily as an attorney but, for instance, as a business advisor, member of the Board of Directors, or in another non-legal role, then the privilege generally does not apply. However, the privilege may be waived if the confidential communications are disclosed to third parties. Sometimes exceptions are made and the priviledge is waived off, as for example, in cases where the client questions the attorney’s professional competence through criminal charges or a malpractice suit.